AOS 1 - HTAV lecture

Leaders to focus on:

Tsarist leaders
Tsar Nicholas II

Peter Stolypin
Tsarina Alexandra and Rasputin

Revolutionary leaders
Alexander Kerensky
Vladimir ‘Lenin’

Key mistakes of Tsar Nicholas II
  • Absolute belief in autocracy
    e.g. fundamental state laws 1907
    e.g. took control of the army himself
  • Failure to reform
    e.g. lack of real support for Witte and Stolypin’s reforms
    e.g. dismissed first and second dumas (1906-1907)
  • Misunderstood needs of his people
    e.g. blamed the duma for protests in February 1917
    e.g. disregarded requests of workers petition from Bloody Sunday protest in January 1905

Alexander Kerensky
· Joined Socialist Revolutionaries in 1905
· Elected to 4th Duma
· Initiated June Offensive
· Made prime minister in July
· Suppressed Bolsheviks in July Days protests but released them to defend Petrograd from General Kornilov in August
· Inadequate defences to resist Bolsheviks

  • Political initiator, began Bolsheviks 1903-1917
  • International revolutionary
    e.g. Avid reader of Marxist writings
    e.g. Exiled in European countries during1906-1917
  • Influential writer, could address peasants or intellectuals
    e.g. What is to be done? 1902
    e.g. April Theses 1917
  • Political negotiator
    e.g. recruited Trotsky in July 1917
  • Notable absences
    e.g. played no role in 1905
    e.g. played no role in Feb revolution 1917
    e.g. only in Russia for 4 months April-July 1917
  • Incredibly influential
    e.g. impact of speech at Finland station, April 1917
    e.g. initiated Bolshevik defeat of the Provisional government
  • Unlimited perseverance
    e.g. remained loyal to the cause during Stolypin’s oppression of revolutionaries 1906-11
    e.g. escaped to Finland to continue fighting after July Days
  • Politically dominant

  • Joined Marxists in 1897
    e.g. his writings encouraged strikes and anti-tsarists action, so exiled to Siberia
  • Active in 1905 revolution
    e.g. formed St Petersburg soviet, a leader of October strikes
  • Exiled in 1905-1917
  • Returns May 1917 and joins Bolshevik party
  • Formed Red Guard from Petrograd worker
  • Leader of Military Revolutionary Committee
  • Organised and directed the October takeover in 1917